I recently find myself using handy bash one-liners more all the time. I think that this is where unix/linux can really start to shine. There are so many little programs that just do one thing, and one thing well. But the ability to combine these together through pipes means you have extremely flexible and powerful tools at the ready.
I have been working on a new project at work to come up with some lists for testing speech recognition. We decided to use the TIMIT database, which contains recordings of many different sentences from many different speakers all around America. I first wrote a perl script to generate some basic stats on the sentences, like how many words were in each sentence, and what the word frequency for those words is. Then I wrote a perl script to randomly select some of the sentences, and create several different lists of sentences. Finally, I wrote an R script which took the original .wav files, and mixed in signal-dependent noise in one channel, so that we can vary the signal to noise ratio during presentation of the stimuli by adjusting the balance on our sound system.
Along the way, I ran into a couple problems with the original sound files. It turns out that 446 of the 6300 sound files were clipped, and highly distorted. I noticed this on my own in listening to a few of the files I had generated with R. I could have gone through all 6300 files manually, and removed the distorted ones, but that would have taken a long time. Instead, I used the program sox, which is a low-level, powerful audio processing program. I first used the find command to find all .wav files in the directory I was interested in (including sub-directories), then I passed each file to sox, and told sox not to play the output , but instead just give me some stats (-n stat). After some testing with a few clipped, and non-clipped files, I realized that for clipped files, the output from sox ended with a line that said either “Try: blah blah”, or “Can’t determine type”. I then later discovered that there might still be clipped files, and these would have a maximum amplitude of 1 or minimum or -1. So I knew that any clipped file would produce this output. So I passed the results from sox to grep (notice I had to redirect STDERR to STDOUT 2>&1), and then if the output contained a line starting with “Try:” or “Can’t”, then I moved that file the $file.clipped.
if [[ `sox $file -n stat 2>&1 | grep -E "^(Try:|Can't|(Minimum|Maximum) amplitude:\s+-?1\.00)"` ]]; then
echo "$file CLIPPED";
mv $file $file.clipped;
After doing this, I simply amended my perl script which randomly generated lists to make sure that the wav file actually existed. Clipped files now ended in .clipped, instead of .wav.
There was an additional problem I had previously discovered with these sound files. They seemed to have some non-standard headers in them, which meant that the R script I was using to add noise to them couldn’t read the files. However, passing the files through sox made the files readable by R. (Windows Media Player on a Windows box couldn’t read the files either.) I only wanted to process the files I was actually going to add noise to, so I used another handy little bash one-liner. This one cuts a column of the file which contains all the sentences I am going to use, and then for each filename, processes the file through sox, and outputs it to the destination directory of my choosing.
do sox $file ~/R/work/timit/clean/`basename $file`;
Note that I have expanded the code into one more line, but pretty much they are one-liners. I think technically a one-liner doesn’t involve successive commands, which the first example does, but the first command is just an echo, to make sure I know what it is doing.